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DRTC Seminar

On

Web Based Library and Informatin Services

By

Sudip Ranjan Hatua


Table of Contents

  • 0 Introduction
  • 1.1 What are the Library Services?
  • 1.2 What is Web?
  • 1.3 Web based library services-- Background
  • 1.4 Basic advantage of Web based library services
  • 1.5 Scope of the Web based information services
  • 2 General services offered by Web
  • 3 Web Based Library Services
  • 3.1 Access to Database
  • 3.2 Bibliographic and Cataloguing Services
  • 3.3 Bulletin Board
  • 3.4.1 Current Awareness Services
  • 3.4.2 E-Selective Dessimination of Information
  • 3.5 E-Mail
  • 3.6 Frequently Asked Questions
  • 3.7 Internet Subject Gateways
  • 3.8 ListServe
  • 3.9 NewsClipping Service
  • 3.10 Newsgroup
  • 3.11 News-Letter Service
  • 3.12 OPAC
  • 3.13 Webpac
  • 3.14 Patent Information Service
  • 3.15 Reference Services
  • 3.16 UseNet
  • 3.17 Uncover
  • 3.18 WebCasting
  • 3.19 White Board Environment
  • 4.1 Why Library Services
  • 4.2 Infrastructure Required for Library
  • 4.3 Infrastructure Required for Users
  • 5 Bad Trend to Avoid
  • 6 Future
  • 7 Indian Senerio
  • 8 Issues
  • 9 Challenges
  • 10 Conclusion
  • 11 Reference
  • 0. Introduction

    The web was designed as an information space, with the goal that it should be useful not only for human – human communication, but also those machines would be able participate and help. One of the major obstacles to this has been the fact that most information on the web is designed for human consumption, and even if it was derived form a database with well defined meanings for its columns, that the structure of the data is not evident to a robot browsing the web.

    The question is doing the library users happy with the online approach? Yes most of the web based library service provider is getting a lot of feedback from their effective users. So libraries also introducing more and more services on the web, a tremendous amount of content, and the system has had some continuity over time.

    As the Internet grows ever larger, the sheer quantity of textual information continually increases. Basic text, in ASCII, HTML, PDF, probably makes up the bulk of the information that we ald Animation facilities
    Equal opportunity for access to all
    Information sharing for any number of users at any time.
    Provides a distributed information system
    Move to owning model to access model.
    Exchange of electronic mail and other data files in a wide area environment.
    On-line real time interaction with other network users.
    Participation in electronic media mailing lists and conferences.
    Receipts and delivery of electronic publication
    Access to data stored on remote computers.
    Access to remote scientific computing equipment such as super computer, remote sensing equipment telescope, graphic processors ,
    Access to wide selection of public domain and shareware software.

    1.1 What are the library services?

    Library services refer to facilities, which are provided by a library for the use of books and dissemination of information for the need and meet the users' requirement. The well known existing library services are cataloguing, classification, circulation services, reservation, renewal, new arrivals, current contents, current awareness service, selective dissemination of information, indexing and abstracting, reference service, document delivery, inter library loan, externally purchased database, CD-ROM databases, access to other library catalogues, access to online databases, internally published newsletter, reports and journals, bibliographic services, and so on. All these services have changed its mode to an extent with web environment.

    1.2 What is WEB?

    WEB is popularly used as the synonymous term of World Wide Web or Internet or Online. The Internet and its "publishing arm" the WWW are important components in the communication process. The web is a client or server system used to access all kinds of information to anyone on the net. The information can be in the form of regular text, hypertext , pictures, sounds, Usenet newsgroups and other types of data. To access this information, use a client program called browser. Within the web, the information is stored in pages. Each page can hold not only information but links to other pages. In each page a particular word or sequence of words highlighted item and the other information related to that words in some other pages. This means that there is a link between the highlighted item and the other information, the service is called hypertext. When anyone wants to follow a link, the browser will find out where it is and connect the web server at that location, request the new page and then display it on the screen.

    The WWW may represent an intermediate form between recorded and unrecorded communication and information transfer. Because it is a new medium we have not yet fully identified the dynamics of its behavior. Keeping in mind today's tremendous increase in information and changing users behavior we can say that web is an ideal media for providing information. There are some common facilities we can enjoy form web.

    These are— Hypertext document
    Text, Pictures, Sound and Animation facilities
    Equal opportunity for access to all
    Information sharing for any number of users at any time.
    Provides a distributed information system
    Move to owning model to access model.
    Exchange of electronic mail and other data files in a wide area environment.
    On-line real time interaction with other network users.
    Participation in electronic media mailing lists and conferences.
    Receipts and delivery of electronic publication
    Access to data stored on remote computers.
    Access to remote scientific computing equipment such as super computer, remote sensing equipment telescope, graphic processors ,
    Access to wide selection of public domain and shareware software.

    1.3 Web based library services--Background

    At beginning library was just a store house of books and other document. General people were not allow to use that documents. After long time library started document delivery service and circulation came into picture. From middle of the 19th century there were drastic change of library services. A large number of different services came into the picture. computer came during the middle of the 20th century the mode of library services changed dramatically. It became information service and new kind of offline service came into picture and last one decade of 20th century it was started to provide online service. If we try to find out the history of web based services I would like to say that it was 1960s we can think as a first step.

    In early 1960's developed countries began to experiment with the use of computer in library and information processing activities. Mainly these system were batch oriented and used punched cards as data input media. It was H.P.Luhn of I.B.M. , U.S.A. during 1950's initiated computer –based SDI, CAS and Indexing services. Here it should be noted that the term 'information retrieval' as commonly used refers to systems and procedures for retrieval not of information but of documents that may inform the users on the particular subject areas of interest to them. Actually most retrieval systems do not deliver the documents at all. Instead , they retrieve some form of document surrogate such as full bibliographic citation or bibliographic citation plus the abstract.

    In the USA among the pioneers of large scale bibliographic processing by the computer, the National Library of Medicine, which launched MEDLARS service in 1963. It was the first large scale system made available to the general public without any restriction. Even today it is one of the most widely used service in the world. It become online during 1970 under the name MEDLINE. In this way during 1970's libraries made proper use of computers in various library operations and launched local system successfully due to availability of improved computer technology and collaboration between libraries and computer specialists.

    The Chemical Abstract Service started by the American Chemical Society in 1907 became online during 1967. Another important online retrieval system was the RECON (Remote Console) system of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the several online services available in the U.S.A. The largest is Lockheed's DIALOG Service started in 1972 .

    There was revolutionary change in library co-operation and resource sharing as a result several library network like OCLC came into existence. The Online Computer Library Center established in 1963 which became the pace –setter for many such library networks.

    In UK the British Library offers an online information retrieval services with several data bases, called BLAISE (British Library Automated Information Service ). There are also over 140 computer based international information systems in various disciplines and missions established on co-operating basis by 36 UN organization and agencies within the conceptual framework of UNISIST, many of them offering on-line information retrieval service also e.g. INIS, AGRIS, Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS), Population Information System (POPINS), International Patent Documentation Center (INPADOC) and so on.

    From 1980's the provision of "packaged" hardware and software system has came into practice and also gained popularity for information storage and retrieval process and reference network of the libraries and bibliographical information center.

    1.4 Basic advantages of web based services

    To save the precious time of the scientist
    Availability of less number of library staff to carry out the library works and services
    Less dependence upon the library staff for getting the required information
    Location of laboratories/ departments in different places in the campus
    Instant and elaborate information requirements for R&D activities
    Information for decision making in MIS
    Multifold increase of the cost of books and journals
    Availability of information in different places and also in different formats
    Cut in library budget.

    1.5 Scope of web based services

    Library networks offer much potential and new capabilities for sharing information among different library and information centers at local, regional, national and international levels and eliminate the size, distance, and language barriers among users through resource sharing.
    Inter-library loan can be provided by sending the information though e-mail using the network facilities.
    On-line ordering and acquisition related activities can be carried out though e-mail Centralization and computerized on-line public access cataloguing service can be provided by networking system.
    Networking with union catalogues of various items of information is a boon as it avoids duplication in holding to the extent possible.
    Reference service can be enhanced by e-mail and internet though LAN and WAN.
    CD-ROM and multimedia service can be provided effectively though networks.
    Current Awareness service and SDI may be given though networking systems and the users may retrieve references of their interest in a fraction of second from an online database.
    Speed of data communication though networks is very high and one can obtain information within few seconds from any part of the world sitting any where.
    The internet is a major tool that delivers to the front door of other networks, other services and other resources. It is a tool providing access to vast quantities of information and it lets to communicate, share resource and share data with people around the world.

    2 General services offered by Web

    Following are the very common and general services offer by the web. Some of them we can apply on our library and information science field. But most of these services we can't use as a library services.

    1. List serve
    2. Subject database
    3. Community information
    4. Government resources
    5. Library catalog
    6. Shopping and other commercial transactions
    7. Document delivery
    8. Commercial resources
    9. Bulletin board
    10. E-mail facilities
    11. Surfing facilities.


    3 Web based services

    3.1 Access to Database
    3.2 Bibliographic and cataloguing service
    3.3 BULLETIN BOARD SERVICE
    3.4 Push based services
    3.4.1CAS
    3.4.2 profit based alert service
    3.4.3 E-SDI : Link to remote information
    3.5 List of acquisition
    3.6 Hosting on web
    3.7 E-mail delivery
    3.8 FAQ
    3.9 ILL and document delivery services
    3.10 Internet Subject Gateways
    3.11 Newsletter services
    3.12 OPAC
    3.13 WebPAC
    3.14 Patent Information Services
    3.15 Reference Services
    3.16 Usenet
    3.17 Uncover
    3.18 Webcasting
    3.19 Whiteboard
    3.20 Virtual Library

    3.1 Access to Database

    Several publishers today offer web-based, intranet solutions for providing local access to their databases. Examples include Silver Platter, Cambridge Scientific Abstract and Institute for Scientific Information. Journal publishers have also begun to offer similar situation, for example Elsevier, for electronic version of their journals. Large R&D libraries can take advantage of these developments and provide desktop access to key database and electronic publications to their users.

    Apart from the externally purchased databases, libraries have their own collection of CD-ROM databases mounted on their CD server/tower. Online database vender such as Dialog, Lexis-Nexis, ERIC are delivering their database over internet. So a library which subscribes to these database can now easily access them over Web.

    3.2 Bibliographic and Cataloguing Services

    This service can also be prepared from different databases available on the Web. For example in physics the Los Alamos e-print archives is the more productive means of communication for Astrophysics, Quantum Physics, Considered Matter Theory etc. Veronica's net-wide index, Archie and NCSTRL's technical report on Computer Science and some other. www.chemceter.org is the American Chemical Society's "virtual community" for chemistry professionals, researchers as central source for information on Chemistry related resources. It is an interesting, integrated electronic workplace where we—

    1. Receive information on ACS's (American Chemical Society) program and activities.
    2. Provide awareness of important scientific issues.
    3. Explore career option and job opportunity.
    4. Link to publication of ACS.
    5. Link to world's most comprehensive database of Chemical information.


    Telnet access to remote computer of different organizations' library catalog is also available. Information on books which are not easily available may be accessed through telnet. Library of Congress Catalog is a very popular online service LC. Other libraries, which are on the Web, can be easily accessed through telnet services, which help the researchers. Some of the bibliographic service are available online on the Net. Links from the library homepage can be provided to those sites. For example—

    The National Bibliographic Service: http://www.bl.uk/
    ABSEES online- an online version of the American Bibliography of Slavic and East European Studies: http://www.library.uiuc.edu/absees/
    BRS (Bibliographic Retrieval Service): http://lmc.einet.net/hytelnet/FEE024.html


    3.3 Bulletin Board Services

    A bulletin board is a public discussion area where people can post message without sending them to anyone's e-mail address that can be viewed by anyone who enters the area. On CompuServe a bulletin board is called a forum. On the Internet, the equivalent areas are called newsgroups

    Separate notice board option can be created though e-mail facility and the latest information of the daily news, job opportunities, admission notice, entrance examination, scholarship and fellowships, new courses etc. can be posted and made available for the users though this bulletin board service.

    It is proposed to provide this facility to display/ view news, announcements etc. with constant updating of information in an electronic bulletin board. The UGC circular can also be put on this board. Several bulletin boards can be made available in the networks for each specific category of user discipline.

    3.4.1 Current Awareness Services

    CAS according to Luhn is an essential function of management to make the members of its organization aware promptly of such new information which will most likely contributes to performing their individual task with the highest possible degree of competence. Modern procedures and techniques of CAS have included individual notification of published information directed to individual professional scientist's engineers and others.

    The long-term purpose of the CAS is to provide a substitution for the circulation of new journal to the users various electronic current products have been investigated that could partly provide what the circulation of journal has provided over the years. They also had to be available via the Web in order to allow the ultimate extension of the service to research students located at the distance from the campus. Silverplatter, NISC, Ovid, Dialog and Faxon allow the user to save profiles.

    A library can provide this service through e-mail, which is easiest and common procedure. Otherwise a library can refer or link directly to some location to their WebPages. Some important Internet site providing information service are—


    Bibliotech Review—This site provides nascent information on global development of library automation Industry. URL: http://www.gadget-server.com/bibliotech
    Current cites—This is a monthly bibliography of some selected titles of books and electronic documents on information technology. URL: http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/currentcites/
    A library can link http://www3.oup.co.uk/jnls/tocmail/ to his WebPages for giving Oxford Journals' Table of Content Service to their users. It guides to content of current journals published by Oxford University Press.
    Scholarly Article Research Alerting—Provides table of contents of any of its 200 academic journals http://www.carfax.co.uk/sara.htm


    3.4.2 Electronic Selective Dessimination of information

    Most of the R&D and academic institute because of the tight teaching and research schedule, it was found that scientists and faculty members of the institute were hard-pressed to personally visit the library. Here an electronic SDI service was formulated to deliver current information of interest to faculty members on their desktop. Through this service the Research Interest Profiles (RIPs) of users are searched in a batch mode on the latest updates of EDB's on a monthly basis and the result are e-mailed to respective faculty members. Thus this service not only function as a Current Awareness Tool, but also influenced the acquisition of information sources as well as usage of other library services like document delivery, resource sharing and acquiring reprints.

    For promoting E-SDI services on the web, library should create a link from the existing library environment (i.e. E-SDI page is accessed by clicking the SDI siblink from the information service link of library main page) and the different task followed provide the services can be traced by hyper-navigating the active link. A general definition about E-SDI can be given on the basis of H.P.Luhn's original definition of SDI developed in 1958 which involves the matching of user profile with the new materials, the notification to the users feedback from the users and the modification of users profile. Further link outline the different step followed in delivering the output, how the RIPs are constructed, answering the frequently asked question, feedback received from the users, statistical details about the service, and a figurative representation of the whole activity.

    3.5 E-mail

    First let me clear that e-mail is not at all web based library service. It is an web based excellent media and most probably most popular media. And we the library professionals can use this web medium for various purposes specially for delivering some web based services.

    The most easy and convenient method to access the web sources is e-mail. When a researcher who registers his name and chose the content pages of some journals of publishers like Elsevierscience, Pergamon Press and some other society publication, request for sending the content page of the selected journal the publishers take care of sending the content in advance, against the registered individual's e-mail address. This helps as excellent current awareness service to the scientists.

    3.6 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    FAQ stands for Frequently Asked Questions. A compilation of Frequently Asked Questions and their answer is referred to as a FAQ list or FAQ article. FAQs are compilations of information which are the result of certain questions constantly being asked hence the name FAQ.

    There are thousands of FAQs on the World Wide Web. AskERIC is an Internet question answering services run buy the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology at Syracuse University, NewYork. Since it began in 1994 it has answered more than 2 million education-related questions from around the world. It now offers a new features for ERIC/IT, an abstracts in process database of abstracts that are awaiting final editing to be loaded on to the ERIC database updated weekly, the in process database offer 15 searchable fields and each record contains bibliographic information and an abstract of document and journal articles ERIC/IT has produced.

    3.7 Internet Subject Gateways

    Subject based Information Gateways are subject entrances (clearing houses) to quality assessed Internet resources. This can be contrasted with gateways where resources are arranged according to where they are physically placed or "geographically" like W3 servers or according to what type of resource they are, such as InterNIC. Compared to common link-lists SBIGs are labor intensive, but gives the advantage of a quality-assessed collection, with standardized descriptions that gives the user a possibility to judge the relevance of the resources.

    A number of libraries in Europe are involved in the development of internet subject gateways services that aim to help users find high quality resources of internet subject gateways offer an alternative to the Internet search engines and Web directories. The definition of subject gateways says in some sense they are the Internet equivalent of an academic or special library. Subject gateways are Internet based services designed to help users locate high quality information that is available on the Internet. They are typically databases of detailed metadata records, which describes Internet resources and offer a hyperlink to the resources. User cans chose to either searches the database by keywords or to either search the database by keywords or to browse the resources under subject heading.

    For example: A very popular Subject Gateway is "PINAKES" (http://www.hw.ac.uk/libWWW/irn/pinakes/pinakes.html). It gives link of 45 various subjects gateways. It provides 10 the Multi-Subject Gateways for example INFOMINE (http://infomine.ucr.edu/Main.html), DutchESS (http://www.konbib.nl/dutchess/) and BUBLLink (http://bubl.ac.uk/link/). A link BUBL (http://bubl.ac.uk/) is a famous LIS subject gateway gives BUBL Journals Abstracts, full text, over 200 titles with other various links. BUBL LINK / 5:15 Catalogue 150 Internet Resources link for Library and Information Science.

    3.7.1 Here are a number of sites which gives access to subject gateways—
    WWW Gateways : http://www.actlab.utexas.edu/gateways.html
    Subject Gateways, Electronic Journals and Search tools: http://www.ull.ac.uk./ull/webres.html
    Trinity College Library WWW Resources for Library User: http://www.tcd.ie/Library/gateways.htm
    Galaxy-The professional's guide to a world of information: http://galaxy.einet.net/galaxy.html
    Australian Libraries Gateway: http://enzo.nla.gov.au/products/alg/
    Subject based Information Gateways: http://www.lub.lu.se/desire/sbigs.html
    PINAKES: http://www.hw.ac.uk/libWWW/irn/pinakes/pinakes.html.
    INFOMINE: http://infomine.ucr.edu/Main.html


    3.8 ListServe

    Listserv discussion lists are topic oriented forums distributed by e-mail, dealing with a side variety of topics, many of which are academic in nature. Once you've subscribed to a listserv discussion list, messages from other subscribers are automatically sent to your electronic mailbox. To subscribe to a listserv discussion group we have to send an e-mail message to a computer thousands of miles away. The listserv program handles subscription information and distributes messages to and from subscribers. There are variety of listserv programs but they all work essentially the same way.

    3.9 NewsClipping Services

    News clip service is one of the CAS provided in many libraries in print/ photocopy form. To provide this service, news items from selected news papers are first marked and then the clippings are pasted on a white sheet. These filed clippings are then circulated among the users. Due to its physical nature, its distribution is limited by the number of copies generated as well as this conventional filing systems provide only one index field for the file. The risk of misfiled and unreturned documents is virtually eliminated in an electronic format. The format may be Text or PDF(Portable Document Format). The image may represented as GIF (Graphic Interchange Format) or JEPG ( Joint Photographic Experts Group). All the document should be copied to the server root and the executable to the CGI-BIN directory. A homepage for news clips service has been created and through which access to the news clips has been achieved.

    3.10 NewsGroup

    They are on-line discussion groups on many topics of varied interest. A program called newsreader is required to view and post message in newsgroups. Unlike mail lists and chats, newsgroups allow readers to choose the topics to discuss. They can be of immense help to professionals and scientists. Special libraries must encourage users to participate in newsgroups thereby enhancing the organizational knowledge base. The library staff can post messages in the appropriate newsgroup and discuss library –related problems, adoption of new techniques in libraries, etc.

    3.11 Newsletter Services

    It is very good service to the users, listing available Internet services, sites, new addition, publications, useful like Conference, Workshops, Training and Fellowship programs. A catalog of Internet base information sources is useful assets for all R&D libraries if given at regular intervals through e-mail or they can host it in their website.

    3.12 OPAC

    The Online Public Access Catalog is one manifestation of the massive changes that are taking place as we plunge into the information age. OPACs are the gateways to information in libraries and provide facilities to browse, search and locate information. OPACs were developed to meet the needs of users in two different ways (1) it meant access to library housekeeping operations especially circulation and (2) to give the library users direct access to the machine-readable bibliographic records.

    An OPAC—
    Provides the public with direct access to a library's bibliographic database though the use of a terminal.
    Is searchable though a variety of access points greater than those available though card form catalogs.
    Is searchable with a common command language, which may be transferred when the public moves from one library to another.
    Retrieves information from a local library field, and if not successful locally, retrieves information from other libraries' files.
    Provides instructional help.
    Displays search results in readily understandable form.
    Provides links to card form catalogs, reference help, circulation files, etc.
    May be accessed remote from the library's location.

    Generally OPAC is accessed via Telnet. But at present, where the internet is dominating in the networking environment, OPAC is available and accessible via Internet. They are known as WebPAC or InternetPAC. WebPAC became more simple popular and easy to handle.

    3.12.1 OPAC to WebPAC

    When remote access to the library catalog meant a telnet connection, users had little incentive to visit the library Web page.

    As WebPACs matured to the point where the interface was reasonably functional, many libraries phased out their dumb terminal OPACs. The library Web site then became a more logical gateway to the catalog and other Web-based library resources. An informative home page introduces users to helpful information about the library, its collections, and services. This order of access is a good opportunity to distinguish between the catalog and other electronic indexes and databases.

    WebPAC is welcome with open arms because:
    the Web interface is familiar and graphics aid navigation.
    the user can click complex subject, or other, headings. Less typing is good.
    there are no Unix, VMS or other weird commands.
    it's easy to check periodical holdings in a new browser window without losing search results.


    3.13 WebPAC

    3.13.1 FEATURES OF Web OPAC
    It offers the libraries the opportunities to have access to various resources of other libraries on the web.
    It allows users to interact with documents stored on computers all over the world.
    Makes easier to access catalogue data in the form of bibliographic records.
    Sometime has the ability to search the OPACs of other libraries
    Powerful tool that links all the electronic resources for easy access.
    Make the catalogue from providing information to providing access to large banks of actual information.
    It becomes another search engine.
    Referred as 'Web Cats' and as well a type of 'Information Gateway'
    Some require a login ID, user name and or password
    Some include information on the screens such as login ID, user name or pass word in boxes and users can see when they access the catalogue.


    3.13.2 There are several advantages of Web OPAC—
    1. The users use a standard interface – the Web browser –, which the end users are well accustomed to. So there is little need for end user training.
    2. The Web's standard functionality hyper linking text files as well as database reports or searches are used.


    In addition to searching and browsing the library catalogue end-users can transmit orders or requests directly from the Web OPAC as well as view their own borrower accounts. While they need not do anything but click on a hyperlink to access the OPAC of their local library they have to enter their personal user ID and password to access these services.

    Hyperlinks through OPAC need not be static but may start a new database search. For example, our end users can identify other publications by the same author or corporate source by simply clicking on their name. Similar link reports are offered for classification codes, or controlled and supplementary terms. Such hyperlinks are only generated if there are further reference within the database in addition to the one just being displayed. They may provide for horizontal browsing that means "show me more like this".

    Web OPAC can give different types of link: on the one hand there are links, which identify related records within the catalogues (link reports or cross searches as well as bibliographic hierarchies). On the other hand there are those which refer to external resources, i.e. full text links, links to companies or scientific societies, and links to publishers. This led to database design problem—how exactly should which type of link be displayed.

    3.13.3 SOME OF THE WEB BASED OPAC SITES ARE HERE

    Access through Internet—
    The Library of Congress Online Catalog: http://lcweb.loc.gov/catalog/.
    The British Library Catalog -OPAC-97: http://opac97.bl.uk/.
    HYTELNET on the World Wide Web: http://www.lights.com/hytelnet/.
    WebCATS- gives Geographical index, Vendor index and library-type index: http://www.lights.com/webcats/.
    CHESWEB- British and International Catalog : http://www.chester.ac.uk/~smilne/libs.htm
    Z39.50 Gateway—Number of institute , colleges and universities catalogs: http://lcweb.loc.gov/z3950/.
    ROGER-UCSD's local online catalog: http://roger.ucsd.edu/
    ULTAS Catalog: telnet://universe.rsa.lib.il.uc/
    SILO catalog from RSA: telnet://universe.rsa.lib.il.uc:24/
    CARL system: http://www.carl.org/cinfo.html


    3.14 Patent Information Services

    Internet is the fastest expanding network to access patent information sources of different countries most important patent information services available on Internet are—

    1. General information for obtaining patent (full text or bibliography), list of publications, offices like USPTO, IP office of Brazil, and Canadian patents and current awareness services form bibliographic database.
    2. Search can be made by inventees name, applicant's name, classification symbols etc. It is free access services for the users, (http://patents.cnidr.org). Full text of patent are not available for free services through Internet. US Patent Trademark Office (USPTO) allows access to their patent databases (http://www.uspto.gov). Internet Patent News Service provides lists of all U.S. patents issued during the previous week, available by free subscription via-e-mail.
    3. Derwent Scientific and Patent Information (http://www.derwent.co.uk/) – Derwent World patent index contains patent information from different patent issuing authorities and derwernt patents citation index. Derwent's database is available an different online hosts like DIALOG, STN, Datastar, Orbit etc. They are giving links to other various patent information services.
    4. Biotechnology Patents: http://www.inform.umd.edu:8080/EdRes/Topic/AgrEnv/Biotech?Biotechpatent
    5. Chemical Patents plus from Chemical Abstract – http://casweb.cas.org/chempatplus/ New patent files can also be obtained free of cost.

    3.15 Reference Services

    The reference service in a library is often defined as direct personal assistance given to its reader for finding information. It is the branch of library services, which includes personal assistance given to in their search for information on various subject areas, irrespective of size and collection of the library.

    Whereas much of traditional library networking has focused on information access within and between the physical boundaries of libraries and research institutions, web based reference services owe their increasing popularity amongst librarians to the increasing need to extend the reference desk beyond the library's walls. The goal is to meet the demand for easy 24 hours access to electronic reference sources from the dorm room, the office, and even the kitchen table.

    Much work has been done recently on the demographics of the current day library regarding access to electronic services. Virtually every academic library and almost all-public ones offer access to CDROM products. Almost all-academic libraries offer mediated access to the traditional online services such as DIALOG, Dow Jones and LEXIS-NEXIS. Much of this searching is done on databases made available either through loading the data on the library's own server or through access to remote reference servers, such as Information Access Company's InfoTrac SearchBank or OCLC's FirstSearch. A search of the web will yield literally hundreds of libraries that have home pages which offer a startling array of services, ranging from book catalogue to commercial databases to community information such as events schedules, political minutes, and information of interest to a user public. Many of these services attempt to provide similar levels of service to those found in the library. In fact most end users and librarians expect that remote access to electronic resources mean these resources must be self service, from the perspective of offering easy access to the complete content from a wide variety of sources material in electronic form. And all of this available 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

    Example of reference online— Britannica online—http://www.members.eb.com Online Dictionary—http://www.dictionary.com

    The site dictionary .com incorporates Webster's dictionary for providing answers. This site serves as an effective and efficient reference tool for the librarian. It includes a number of facilities like—Ask Dictionary:- this particular link helps in finding out the meaning , adjectives, adverbs etc. by consulting Webster's Dictionary. Community Service:- serves the community of readers on the www, e.g. delivering online periodicals, newspapers, classics texts etc.


    Online maps and Atlases—http:// www.atlapedia.com/index.html Altapedia Online contains full color physical and political maps as well as key facts and statistics on countries of the world.

    Encyclopedia—http://www.encyclopedia.com Encyclopedia.com was created by Infonautics Corporation to give Internet users a simple, one stop site to begin their research and answer basic questions

    There are several major application of web based library reference services—

    3.15.1 EXTENDING PATRON'S REFERENCE QUESTIONS TO WEB RESOURCES Just about any librarian who has spent any time at the reference desk has his own favorite reference sources those that always seem to have the answer to the most difficult questions. With the Internet now and integral part of the reference desk, many of the reference sources in a librarian's "big tricks" are of online variety. To help their patron librarians now are sharing their online "bag of tricks" by organizing links to their favorite sources on library web pages.

    A good example of an online reference site is the library spot. This is a comprehensive site, current event topic, and online exhibits and must see site. Another reference site on the web is one with a more narrow focus is INFOMINE—a reference site built by librarians. It has over 14000 links to meet the need of faculty, students and researchers at the university level. Its online resources include database, electronic journal, electronic books, bulletin boards, list serve, online library card catalogs, and conference proceedings. It has both browsing and searching facilities providing both annotation and in depth indexing terminology for each record. These can be thinking as librarians extended reference service though web.

    The Argus clearinghouse – http://www.clearinghouse.net
    Infomine -- http://lib-www.ucr.edu
    Internet Public Library -- http://www.ipl.org
    Librarian's Index to the Internet—http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/internetindex
    World wide web virtual library – http://vlib,stanford.edu/Overview.html

    3.15.2 GREAT READER'S ADVISORY SERVICES FOUND ON THE WEB

    This is closely related reference service but often neglected in many libraries feeling the pinch of too little staff, is reader's advisory services. Just as reference librarian gain great satisfaction from finding the answer to reference question, librarians who offer reader's advisory services are rewarded when a patron returns a book and says " it was wonderful – just the type of book I like to read". Reader's advisory service, like reference services no longer has to be an in-house only operation. The library can offer this service through their web site. The staff member recommended and reviews titles under the categories of new fiction, mysteries, nonfiction etc. A search features allows visitors to search for book reviews of specific titles and an online form permits readers to submit their own reviews for publication on the site. Information on local book talks and book club is available, as are links to web sites of interest to readers.

    3.15.3 ONLINE INSTRUCTION FOR ONLINE SEARCHING

    Library particularly academic libraries often provide bibliographic instruction to help new patrons learn to use their resources effectively. As public library have moved from familiar card catalog to online catalog, staff member have found it necessary to also provide instruction on the use of the new system. Online technologies offer other possibilities and the web was chosen to ease the transition from one automated system to another by their libraries. For example Northwestern University Library of USA. Basic information on the libraries new Voyager system is provided through a FAQ web page and an article from the campus newsletter. An online tutorial can also provided by many libraries, which is an interactive step-by-step introduction to new online catalog.

    3.15.4 A NUMBER OF INTERESTING AND IMPORTANT REFERENCE RESOURCES ARE


    Internet Public Library—Reference Section: http://www.ipl.org/ref/
    Quick Reference Web Sites—Lists a variety of reference sources on the Web: http://www.lib.lfc.edu/internetsearch/refsites.html
    All experts- A directory of experts in various areas: http://www.allexperts.com/
    Almanacs- Annual publications offering lists, charts, and table of information on various topics: http://www.ipl.org/ref/RR/static/ref05000.html
    Associations & Organization- Directories of associations and non-profit organization: http://www.ipl.org/ref/RR/static/ref07000.html
    Bibliographies-Account of persons' lives written by another: http://www.ipl.org/ref/RR/static/ref1000.html
    Calculation and Conventional tools: http://www.ipl.org/ref/RR/static/ref1300.html
    Calendars: http://www.ipl.org/ref/RR/static/ref1400.html
    Census Data & Demographics: http://www.ipl.org/ref/RR/static/ref1500.html
    Dictionaries: http://www.ipl.org/ref/RR/static/ref2000.html
    Encyclopedias: http://www.ipl.org/ref/RR/static/ref3000.html
    Genealogy- information helpful in finding and or interpreting records of the descent of a person, family, or group from an ancestor or ancestors: http://www.ipl.org/ref/RR/static/ref3000.html
    Geography: http://www.ipl.org/ref/RR/static/ref3500.html
    News –Information about the recent events and happenings: http://www.ipl.org/ref/RR/static/ref5000.html
    Periodical Directories: http://www.ipl.org/ref/RR/static/ref5300.html
    Quotations: http://www.ipl.org/ref/RR/static/ref5500.html
    Style and Writing Guide: http://www.ipl.org/ref/RR/static/ref5800.html
    Telephone Directories: http://www.ipl.org/ref/RR/static/ref6000.html


    3.16 UseNet

    The Usenet is a global electronic bulletin board, of sorts, in which millions of people exchange public information on every conceivable topic. Also called "Netnews", it consists of thousands of newsgroups covering a vast range of topics. The Usenet newsfeed can be read by a variety of newsreader software programs. Standard newsreader software includes 'rn' on Unix hosts, 'news' on the VMS system, 'nuntius' client software for the Mac, and 'trumpet' client software for DOS machines. Unlike messages received via e-mail, the Usenet newsgroup messages are not stored on your computer unless you specifically save each one.

    3.17 UnCover

    UnCover is an online periodical article delivery service and a current awareness alerting service. It indexed nearly 18000 English language periodicals in its database and is still growing . Over eight million articles are available through a simple online order system. Five thousand citations are added daily. Articles appear in UnCover at the same time the periodical issue is delivered to your library or local newsstand, which makes uncover the most up-to-date index anywhere.

    It is very helpful to the people who need up-to-the minute information, delivered quickly. Articles located in the UnCover database can be sent via fax machine within 24-48 hours, Monday to Friday- often in less than one hour. Searching the UnCover database is absolutely free. We have to pay only for the articles that we order. Article cost US$10.00 plus copyright royalty fee.

    UnCover access—via telnet: database.carl.org
    World Wide Web URL: http://uncweb.carl.org.

    3.18 WebCasting

    Webcasting which is another example of Push Technology, is defined as the "Pre-Arranged updating of news, weather or other selected information on an Internet user's desktop through periodic and generally unobtrusive over the WWW". In other words, push technology or webcasting is a method of information delivery across the web that pushes information to the screens of users computer. It is an webcasting was introduced by the PointCast Network in 1996. Presently most of the webcasters concentrate on news delivery.

    3.19 White Board Environment

    In a whiteboard environment, there can be many users connected to discuss on a topic and it is different form the newsgroup in the sense that the computer screen serves as a whiteboard and the user can draw figure using the mouse and post message/ explanation in the comment box that appears simultaneously with the whiteboard for other users to view. It is multi-user Java chat and drawing program and so the systems that are connected must be enabled to download Java applets.

    4.1 Why Library Site?

    A modern library can make his own web site because of following reasons—
    1. Facilities and promote library use
    2. To provide the basic information about the library and it's services
    3. To permit online access to local services
    4. To make gateway to networked information services
    5. To introduce integrated push based services.

    4.2Infrastructure Required For Library

    4.21 HARDWARE:
    Pentium III, 128 MB RAM
    17 GBB Hard Disc, large tower VSAT, Earth Station, Router.
    Gateway – one each.
    CD –Net server.
    Modem ( 56.6KBPS)
    Dedicated telephone lines.


    4.22 SOFTWARE:
    Windows NT
    Internet explorer, LibSys or other good Library automated Software
    CD- Net Software, Client server software etc.


    4.3 Infrastructure Required for Users

    4.31 HARDWARE:
    Pentium
    Modem(28.8 KBPS)
    Dedicated Telephone line


    4.24 SOFTWARE:
    Client Server, Windows 95
    Internet explorer.


    5 Bad Trend to Avoid

    Bad design results from lack of experience or the compulsion to put coolness above utility. Some of the most egregious examples suffer from:

    Badly used colors. The worst pages use backgrounds that do not contrast well-enough with text. If viewed in grey-scale, the content would disappear.

    Too many slow-loading Adobe Acrobat PDF files. These files can look very professional, but many students do not have the latest equipment or the swiftest Internet connections, and downloading the Acrobat Reader is an impossible burden.

    Slow Java applets. When used in a locked-down laboratory environment, these can lock-up the browser or workstation.

    Features that require Plug-ins, such as Macromedia Flash, Quick-Time (or other format) Movies, and tutorial software that has to be downloaded. Some former plug-ins are now a standard part of Netscape or Internet Explore, however.

    Inattention to browser compatibility in using cool stuff like Cascading Style Sheets, JavaScript, VB Script, Java applets, etc.

    Confusing the library mission with that of the wider institution for which the Web is a marketing tool for the admissions office aimed at parents, prospective students.

    6 The Future


    Library Web services will continue to expand, offering:


    more full-text electronic journals. Eventually, indexes that do not now include full text will begin to do so, or link to external resources. OCLC's Electronic Collections Online may mature as such a service.
    better bibliographic access to full-text periodicals either through cataloging, databases, or vendors that "aggregate" access. Savings on Interlibrary Loan and user convenience are incentives.
    electronic reserves, either locally or through vendors who simplify copyright issues.
    more Web forms for user feedback, and perhaps a virtual librarian who interacts in real time chat or video conferencing. While there's nothing like a simple phone call, the virtual librarian wouldn't have to be in the library.
    well-developed user education modules or tutorials, especially to support independent exploration of library and Web resources. Library Web authors are getting more sophisticated and able to take advantage of appropriate technologies and software.
    more document delivery services to distance education or commuter students. This will not be cheap, but it's the type of thing that users want.
    Meltdown or solutions to the "printing problem" when "everything" is on the Web and nobody is using microfiche or printed periodicals.
    more resources through creative consortial purchasing. Statewide cooperation will become more common. SOLINET has also been a leader in coordinating contracts for its members.
    experiments with customized interfaces that organize resources for individual library users. People seem to either like or dislike a portal-style interface, finding them comfortingly personal or restrictive.
    somebody will have to figure out how to keep Word users from saving print documents as XML, without thinking in terms of Web, not print, space. XML will be embraced as a way to control page appearance and behavior, but it will take a while for people to figure out how to use it well.
    and there will be trends we haven't thought of yet

    7 The Indian Senerio

    Till 1970, the computers in the country were, by and large, mainly used for scientific calculations, business applications, decision-making and data processing. In 1971 V.A. Kamath and N.M.Makwad of The Library and Information Services of BARC conducted an extensive survey through questionnaire with the primary object of finding out to what extent the computers are used for library operations and information handling. On the basis of the replies received , they draw the following broad conclusions: "There is only one library having computerized procedures for procurement, one for charging and discharging, two for cataloguing , four for preparing library addition lists and one for preparing union catalogue of periodicals.

    Even in 1976 computerization did not increase substantially only a dozen or so organizations and institutions were involved in computer applications of library and information services . Among them were : INSDOC, BARC (Bombay), TIFR, PRL (Ahmedabad), DRTC, IIT, NIC, NAL etc.

    In India, The Govt. of India directory of official web site provides 122 official web sites among them 23 for India Universities, 12 college website. Each of having good libraries but few of them are providing web based services. The IITs IISc and IIM are the best of them which are providing web based service in true sense. Other wise most of the libraries specially University libraries are not upto the mark and most of them are providing only OPAC service not more than that.

    While OPAC have been accepted widely in the west, they have not gained the same degree of acceptance in India. The design and development of OPAC in India is of very recent origin and it can be said as the early nineties development. The launching of INFLIBNET by the UGC in the late eighties has opened up new vistas in the organization of academic and research libraries in India. Many libraries and information centers under the purview of INFLIBNET are given adequate financial resources to automate their resources.

    Manpower training is being provided by the INFLIBNET at its headquarters to the LIS professionals in the areas of Information Technology and its application. But still now the situation in India is not a rosy picture as far as application of IT in Library and Information Centers are concerned.

    8 Issues

    The main issues of web are—


    A huge volume of information is generated every minute
    No order or rules are imposed on the generation, distribution , access and use of this information;
    No fully comprehensive record of the different documents is available at the moment;
    No classification and description framework for storing and retrieving these documents has been commonly accepted and established, although there are several classification which have been applied to parts of the WWW;
    Therefore documents of all kind of format type of information (electronic journal, tourist information, marketing services, commercial sales, library catalog) and subject can be found.

    9 Challenges

    The participating libraries should have the infrastructure for providing the service to their users
    The librarian should take one more step further instead of just providing access to the internet. He or she should take the responsibility of evaluating the web resource for providing the effective.
    The librarian should have depth knowledge about the web resources and the search engine, which will give the real power to the reference librarian to answer the queries.
    The librarian should create a web directory of the inter resources so that it can be used or referred to by a user whenever it is needed for providing the services.
    The users of the library should be given a proper training and explanation about internet and the search option.

    One of the most widely used formal devices for organizing knowledge of information retrieval is by indexing. Indexing systems have been originated with early collections of systems and their function is essentially to indicate the content and related features of a document with the double purpose of: identifying documents on specific subjects and identifying documents on related subjects.

    10 Conclusion

    Services are the heart of any kind of library.Web based library services is a trend. Libraries are taking full advantages of internet and web facilities. They are remarkable changing their mode of provision of services. Users also very happy by getting the library services through web. They can save their time and harassment from not getting the information. The western countries has gone far miles than developing and underdeveloped countries. This new mode of service is highly effective in special libraries rather than academic libraries. In our country we are far backward in this matter. Though we are thinking a lot but in practical it is very very difficult to apply. Our national policy is there but there is no intention of implementation. Here is no infrastructure at all to implement web based library services. Government policy of restricted employment opportunity compelled not to take professional manpower as many as required. Various networking system in our country is simply failed due to the lack of good will, effort and ego problem of big libraries. But still I hope we will enable to overcome all these problem and though initially the installation cost is high but when a library will enable to provide web based service it will popular and if the library and information center is being a professional about their services then in near future it can become a money making self earning organization.

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